SOD and Aging
Oxygen is essential for life, however it is also a very reactive molecule. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals (O₂°¯, H₂O₂, OH°) created from oxygen that are very unstable and may cause a lot of cellular damage.
The imbalance of ROS and available antioxidants to neutralize their harmful effects is defined as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is linked to causing inflammation. Inflammation and oxidative stress can cause many degenerative diseases, the main cause of aging.
Under normal physiological conditions, a balance between these species and the body’s anti-oxidant defenses exists; however, certain conditions, such as smoking, pollution, exposure to sunlight (UV radiation), metabolism of sugars related to high intensity exercise, the natural progression of aging infection and the subsequent immune response, can increase the production of ROS like the superoxide ion (O2-) and the hydroxyl ion (OH-). This will disrupt the natural balance and ultimately lead to oxidative stress.
We have the ability to control oxidative stress by our internal antioxidant system which comprises the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).
Superoxide anion radical (O₂°¯) is the most dangerous of the ROS because it can also produce other oxygen free radicals. The most effective defence against O₂°¯, is the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD will neutralize O₂°¯, turning it into H₂O₂ and then CAT and GPx are required to convert hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) into water and oxygen.
What is GliSODin?
GliSODin® is the first patented technology which contains a bioactive form of superoxide dismutase (SOD) derived from the French melon, Cucumis melo, and is protected by a gliadin biopolymer layer. For this reason, SOD will reach the small intestine where it can be effective in the body. Found in all living species, SOD is also known as the “enzyme of life.”
The superoxide anion is the starting point of cascade reactions of free radical production. Without the neutralizing effects of SOD, the free radical O₂°¯ would cause oxidative damage leading to DNA damage, disease and aging.
The History of SOD
Oral administration of SOD has been very limited due to the instability of this enzyme. Early clinical data was provided by bovine sourced SOD and administered by intramuscular injections which proved to be effective however is no longer allowed due to BSE.
SOD has been labeled as the “enzyme of life” since 1968. However, oral form of administration was highly ineffective due to the activity of the SOD molecule being destroyed by the acids in the stomach.
The anti-inflammatory and immune system modulating effects for the SOD-gliadin (GliSODin®) combination have shown that, while no such effects are observed when SOD or gliadin alone are administered, the SOD-gliadin combination is effective.
The gliadin biopolymer layer has two critical functions:
To protect the SOD from being destroyed by the stomach acid; and to provide adhesive properties, allowing the SOD to be absorbed by the small intestine.
SOD and GliSODin® Research Timeline
The Power of GliSODin®
As GliSODin® is an antioxidant enzyme, it has the ability to target many free radicals and to reduce oxidative stress compared to any other antioxidant. GliSODin® does this by starting an ongoing cascade of reactions to neutralize free radicals, whereas all secondary antioxidants will essentially give up their electron and die in the process. This makes the efficiency of SOD much more valuable for fighting free radicals than any other antioxidant. The antioxidant free radical ratio for secondary antioxidants is 1:1 compared to 1:1,000,000 for primary antioxidants such as GliSODin®.